Java 单元测试获取目标日志内容进行断言的推荐姿势

作者阿里云代理 文章分类 分类:linux图文教程 阅读次数 已被围观 364

一、背景

我们写单元测试的时候,偶尔需要获取被测试对象的 logger 输出的内容,用于断言或者通过单元测试辅助自己排查问题。


比如:
(1)需要断言某个日志被输出过(不能仅仅将输出对象改为 Console 的 Appender 输出到控制台查看内容,无法通过 Assert 进行断言)

(2)某个方法比较复杂,中间多处打印日志,单测中 mock 依赖的对象之后,需要看到哪些日志被输出了。(运行单元测试时,通常不会输出到控制台,通常很多同学会临时在目标对象里添加打印语句,测试通过后删除,非常麻烦)
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自己瞎想下:

(1)监听日志事件,获取事件内容进行打印或者断言(通常会和日志框架强相关)
(2)使用 Mockito 的 ArgumentCaptor 功能
(3)可以自己实现 Logger 接口或者封装一个 LoggerWrapper 作为外壳 ,测试时将 Logger mock 为我们自定义的 Logger
在调用日志的方法时,将对应的内容存储到成员变量容器中
后面断言或者打印时,取出来即可。

今天介绍一个比较成熟的解决方案: log-captor

二、 介绍

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GITHUB 地址:https://github.com/Hakky54/log-captor

最新版本:https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/io.github.hakky54/logcaptor

2021年11月22日 最新版本

<dependency> <groupId>io.github.hakky54</groupId> <artifactId>logcaptor</artifactId> <version>2.7.2</version> <scope>test</scope> </dependency>

2.1 常规测试

被测试类:

import org.apache.logging.log4j.LogManager; import org.apache.logging.log4j.Logger; public class FooService { private static final Logger LOGGER = LogManager.getLogger(FooService.class); public void sayHello() {
        LOGGER.info("Keyboard not responding. Press any key to continue...");
        LOGGER.warn("Congratulations, you are pregnant!");
    }

} 

单元测试:

import static org.assertj.core.api.Assertions.assertThat; import nl.altindag.log.LogCaptor; import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test; public class FooServiceShould { @Test public void logInfoAndWarnMessages() {
        LogCaptor logCaptor = LogCaptor.forClass(FooService.class);

        FooService fooService = new FooService();
        fooService.sayHello(); // Get logs based on level assertThat(logCaptor.getInfoLogs()).containsExactly("Keyboard not responding. Press any key to continue...");
        assertThat(logCaptor.getWarnLogs()).containsExactly("Congratulations, you are pregnant!"); // Get all logs assertThat(logCaptor.getLogs())
                .hasSize(2)
                .contains( "Keyboard not responding. Press any key to continue...", "Congratulations, you are pregnant!" );
    }
} 

2.2 复用 logCaptor

import nl.altindag.log.LogCaptor; import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test; import org.junit.jupiter.api.AfterAll; import org.junit.jupiter.api.AfterEach; import org.junit.jupiter.api.BeforeAll; public class FooServiceShould { private static LogCaptor logCaptor; private static final String EXPECTED_INFO_MESSAGE = "Keyboard not responding. Press any key to continue..."; private static final String EXPECTED_WARN_MESSAGE = "Congratulations, you are pregnant!"; @BeforeAll public static setupLogCaptor() {
        logCaptor = LogCaptor.forClass(FooService.class);
    } @AfterEach public void clearLogs() {
        logCaptor.clearLogs();
    } @AfterAll public static void tearDown() {
        logCaptor.close();
    } @Test public void logInfoAndWarnMessagesAndGetWithEnum() {
        FooService service = new FooService();
        service.sayHello();

        assertThat(logCaptor.getInfoLogs()).containsExactly(EXPECTED_INFO_MESSAGE);
        assertThat(logCaptor.getWarnLogs()).containsExactly(EXPECTED_WARN_MESSAGE);

        assertThat(logCaptor.getLogs()).hasSize(2);
    } @Test public void logInfoAndWarnMessagesAndGetWithString() {
        FooService service = new FooService();
        service.sayHello();

        assertThat(logCaptor.getInfoLogs()).containsExactly(EXPECTED_INFO_MESSAGE);
        assertThat(logCaptor.getWarnLogs()).containsExactly(EXPECTED_WARN_MESSAGE);

        assertThat(logCaptor.getLogs()).hasSize(2);
    }

} 

2.3 设置日志级别

import org.apache.logging.log4j.LogManager; import org.apache.logging.log4j.Logger; public class FooService { private static final Logger LOGGER = LogManager.getLogger(FooService.class); public void sayHello() { if (LOGGER.isDebugEnabled()) {
            LOGGER.debug("Keyboard not responding. Press any key to continue...");
        }
        LOGGER.info("Congratulations, you are pregnant!");
    }

} 

测试日志级别

import static org.assertj.core.api.Assertions.assertThat; import nl.altindag.log.LogCaptor; import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test; public class FooServiceShould { @Test public void logInfoAndWarnMessages() {
        LogCaptor logCaptor = LogCaptor.forClass(FooService.class);
        logCaptor.setLogLevelToInfo();

        FooService fooService = new FooService();
        fooService.sayHello();

        assertThat(logCaptor.getInfoLogs()).contains("Congratulations, you are pregnant!");
        assertThat(logCaptor.getDebugLogs())
            .doesNotContain("Keyboard not responding. Press any key to continue...")
            .isEmpty();
    }
} 

2.4 异常日志

import nl.altindag.log.service.Service; import org.slf4j.Logger; import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory; import java.io.IOException; public class FooService { private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(ZooService.class); @Override public void sayHello() { try {
            tryToSpeak();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            LOGGER.error("Caught unexpected exception", e);
        }
    } private void tryToSpeak() throws IOException { throw new IOException("KABOOM!");
    }
} 

异常日志断言

import static org.assertj.core.api.Assertions.assertThat; import nl.altindag.log.LogCaptor; import nl.altindag.log.model.LogEvent; import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test; public class FooServiceShould { @Test void captureLoggingEventsContainingException() {
        LogCaptor logCaptor = LogCaptor.forClass(ZooService.class);

        FooService service = new FooService();
        service.sayHello();

        List<LogEvent> logEvents = logCaptor.getLogEvents();
        assertThat(logEvents).hasSize(1);

        LogEvent logEvent = logEvents.get(0);
        assertThat(logEvent.getMessage()).isEqualTo("Caught unexpected exception");
        assertThat(logEvent.getLevel()).isEqualTo("ERROR");
        assertThat(logEvent.getThrowable()).isPresent();

        assertThat(logEvent.getThrowable().get())
                .hasMessage("KABOOM!")
                .isInstanceOf(IOException.class);
    }
}
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